The presence of the YAP protein, or its absence, would divide all cancers, including the most aggressive ones, into two categories, depending on whether the protein itself is detected or not. This was declared by a team of scientists from the Sinai Health who affirm that thanks to this discovery it will be possible to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the most aggressive and non-curable forms of cancer.
The study was published in the scientific journal Cancer Cell.
Yap: Everything you need to know about its role in cancer
In their research the scientists of the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute (LTRI), part of Sinai Health, have divided all cancers into two groups, based on the presence or absence of a protein called a Yes associated protein, or YAP.
Rod Bremner, senior scientist at theLTRI, claimed to have established that all cancers are present with there protein enabled or disabled, and each classification shows different drug sensitivities or resistance. there protein plays an important role in the formation of malignant tumors because it is an important regulator and effector of the hippopotamus signaling pathway.
“Not only is the protein off or on, it has opposite effects for or against cancer in both contestsi ”, explained Bremner. “Therefore, YAPon tumors need the protein to grow and survive. On the contrary, YAPoff tumors stop growing when we turn on the protein ”.
Many YAPoff tumors are highly lethal. In their new research, Bremner and other researchers from the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, NY, show that some cancers such as the prostate and lungs can go from a YAPon state to a YAPoff state to resist treatment.
By the time cancer cells are grown in a dish in a laboratory setting, they float or they stick together. The team of researchers found that the protein is the main regulator of a cell’s buoyancy, where all floating cells are YAPoff and all sticky cells are YAPon. THE changes in adhesive behavior are well known to be associated with drug resistance, so their findings implicate the protein at the center of this switch, Bremner explained.
Joel Pearson, co-author and postdoctoral fellow at the Bremner Lab at LTRI, said therapies that fight these cancers could have a profound effect on patient survival.
“The simple binary rule we discovered may expose strategies for treating many types of cancer that fall into the YAPoff or YAPon superclasses.Pearson clarified. “Also, as tumors skip states to evade therapy, having ways to treat YAPoff and YAPon state could become a general approach to prevent this cancer from changing types to resist drug treatments.”
Researchers hope that by deducing the common vulnerabilities of these cancers, new therapeutic approaches can be developed and patient outcomes improved.