The government has made changes to the method of distributing funds intended for residents of the North who plan to move to other areas and need to purchase housing. It is assumed that this will speed up the process of receiving the payments they are entitled to. However, federal aid, as a rule, is not enough for those who expect to return to the “mainland”. Izvestia talked with experts about the difficulties that those who leave and what is needed to solve the accumulated problems.
Check out on a first come, first served basis
Resolution was signed this week. It is primarily about simplifying the transfer of funds allocated for this purpose from region to region.
The government has made changes to the method of distributing funds intended for residents of the North who plan to move to other areas and need to purchase housing. The government believes that this will speed up the process of receiving social benefits due to them.
“Now federal funds allocated for housing certificates will be redistributed between regions with the help of government orders. That is, if there is an economy in one subject, the money will be promptly redirected to the region in need. Previously, this process was regulated only by the law on the budget, which significantly slowed down the process, ”- says the accompanying document.
In addition, disabled persons applying for housing will no longer need to provide a certificate of disability (this information should be automatically entered into the system), and holders of housing certificates will be able not only to spend them on purchasing shared housing, but also transfer it to another person under a contract assignment of the right of claim.
Residential buildings in the village of Klyuchi, Kamchatka Territory
Photo: RIA Novosti / Alexey Kudenko
According to the current legislation, people who arrived in the Far North before January 1, 1992 or who have worked in the North for at least 15 years and do not have their own housing outside of it, can apply for a certificate for the purchase of housing.
In this case, certificates are issued on a first come, first served basis. The priority is given to disabled people of I and II groups and disabled from childhood who were born in the Far North, then – pensioners, unemployed, the last in line are working citizens.
One person is entitled to housing with an area of 33 sq. m, a family of two – 42 sq. m, for a family of three or more people – at the rate of 18 sq. m for each person. The cost of apartments is determined depending on the standards established by the Ministry of Construction for the Russian Federation. For the second half of 2020, it is 48.6 thousand rubles per square meter. That is, a family of three is entitled to a subsidy of 2.6 million rubles. A person who moves alone – about 1.6 million rubles.
Photo: TASS / Valery Sharifulin
The regions of the Far North and equivalent territories are traditionally the leaders in terms of population outflow… It began in the 1990s after the closure of some of the enterprises and did not stop all subsequent years.
– The population of the overseas Arctic has been growing steadily since 2011. So, for 9 years the population of Iceland has grown from 320 thousand people to 364 thousand. In 2011, 722 thousand people lived in Alaska, and by the end of last year, already 731 thousand. In the Russian Arctic zone, the situation is different. Only a few territories grow slightly. For example, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug from 50 thousand people to 51 thousand people. In other regions – the Arkhangelsk region, three Arctic regions of Karelia, the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Republic of Sakha Yakutia and others – there is a decrease everywhere, – says Vera Smorchkova, professor of the Department of Labor and Social Policy of the Institute of Public Administration and Management (IGSU), RANEPA, Executive Director of the Center for Social development of the Russian North.
Total, by data Rosstat, in 2020 more than 50 thousand people left the Far North.
“It all depends on the region”
New steps to improve the system are good, but by themselves they will not solve the problem, which is very acute for the North today., says Andrei Ivanov, expert of the Arctic Development Project Office. First of all, because the existing subsidies are insufficient to cover the need for resettlement.
– Now everything depends on the region and on the enterprise where people worked. If in Soviet times it was a linear situation, it extended to everyone and had a clear regulation, now, due to the transformation of the economy, including the Arctic, the state cannot fulfill these obligations in full. Therefore, a significant part of the work falls on the regions, – he explains.
Photo: TASS / Alexander Ryumin
As a result, the indicators vary considerably from one actor to another, depending on the availability of their own programs and the policies of key extractive companies. So, if, by data for 2018published in 2019, the migration coefficient of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug ranged from -2 to -3, then for the Nenets Autonomous Okrug it was -8.9, and for the Komi Republic – -11 , this is one of the worst results in Russia.
At the same time, the very fact of migration is normal for the North – the specifics of enterprises and the harsh climatic conditions suggest that there will be a constant change of population. Young people will come, and those who have retired or worked the required 15 years, on the contrary, will leave these regions.
However, now not only pensioners are leaving, but also young people., Vera Smorchkova draws attention. Recent – primarily because in the North there is practically no opportunity to get a higher education, and it is economically unprofitable to return… Benefits and free ones, due to those who come here to earn money, do not apply to local residents, and building housing on their own will be much more expensive than in central Russia.
One of the most difficult situations folding in Vorkuta (Republic of Komi) – the fourth largest city in the Arctic Circle… There population since the early 1990s almost halved, from 117 thousand to 52 thousand people in 2020. This, in turn, has devalued people’s housing.
– Of course, there are more problems. In particular, residents of single-industry towns, such as Vorkuta, are experiencing great difficulties. Housing there costs practically nothing, and people simply turn into hostages, says Andrei Ivanov.
Children go in for sports at the Yubileiny stadium in Vorkuta
Photo: RIA Novosti / Maria Plotnikova
In his opinion, a relatively prosperous example is the example of Yamal (migration coefficient -3.2 for 2019), where active housing construction is underway at the regional level in Tyumen and other Siberian cities.
“Where will it turn out”
The optimal – and most preferable – cities for the inhabitants of the North remain in the central part of Russia or in the same and neighboring regions., but already on the “mainland”. Moving south, which is often seen as an alternative to “northern” life, can actually be difficult, including from a medical point of view, due to the strong difference in climatic conditions.
According to a study conducted in 2019 by the Domofond company, two “northern” regions – Yamal and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug – were included in the top ten subjects whose residents are most often interested in moving opportunities. At the same time, residents of the NAO were more often interested in Crimea (7.8%), Belgorod region (5.5%) and St. Petersburg (5.2%), residents of Yamal – Tyumen Region (7.1%), Bashkortostan (3.3%) and Krasnodar Territory (2.8%).
However, in reality, people are ready to go wherever they can., notes Andrey Ivanov: “Now there is a demand for any move. Nowadays, there is no choice. Many people prefer Tyumen or Petersburg, but if there is an opportunity to go to Voronezh, Belgorod or Krasnodar, of course, they will go anyway. “
Photo: TASS / Sergey Savostyanov
While federal funding remains inadequate, regional governments need to prepare their own programs… They also participated in the construction of housing on the “mainland” and co-financed the move, Andrey Ivanov is sure. In addition, the situation can be improved, in his opinion, by increasing the real purchasing power of the population (including by improving the mechanism of benefits for people). This, among other things, will allow you to form your own financial cushion.
– Because now the average salary in Chukotka, for example, is 120 thousand rubles, but the price of a kilogram of onions or carrots there will be about 900-1000 rubles. Therefore, people do not have so many opportunities to save money or postpone moving. And this phenomenon is growing – people working in the North can provide for themselves, but cannot create sufficient savings, – he concludes.
The share of the transport component in the production of goods and services in the Far North accounts for up to 70%, Vera Smorchkova draws attention. therefore stopping the outflow itself and making living in the North economically profitable, including for young people, is possible through the development of this area – construction of roads, the development of polar aviation and the creation of year-round transport accessibility for each village, believes the interlocutor of the publication.