November 19, 1190 The Teutonic Order was founded, which played a significant role in the Christianization of Eastern Europe.
November 20, 1805 The premiere of the only opera by the great composer Ludwig van Beethoven – “Fidelio”.
November 21, 1920 The famous Soviet composer Yan Frenkel was born in Kiev (songs “Cranes”, “Waltz of Parting”, “I am Odessa”).
November 22, 1990 “Iron Lady” Margaret Thatcher has resigned from the post of Prime Minister of Great Britain.
November 23, 1708 The Russian Orthodox Church anathematized Hetman Mazepa for treason to Peter I.
November 24, 1905 An uprising of sailors, led by Lieutenant Schmidt, began in Sevastopol.
Nikolai Pirogov was born in 1810, becoming the thirteenth child in the family of a military treasurer. At the age of 14, he entered the medical faculty of Moscow University (in the application he indicated that he was sixteen years old). During this period, the Pirogov family was in great need. Nikolai did not have a student’s uniform, and to hide it, he sat at lectures in an overcoat, suffering from the heat. In 1833 he was sent to study at the University of Berlin. In 1841 he was invited to Petersburg, where the young scientist headed the department of surgery at the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy. In addition, he also ran the hospital surgery clinic. The talented doctor developed a number of new techniques, thanks to which he was able to avoid limb amputation more often than other surgeons. One of these methods is now called the Pirogov operation.
In 1847, the surgeon went to the active army in the Caucasus to check the operating methods he had developed. There, he first applied dressing with bandages soaked in starch, and also for the first time in the history of medicine performed an operation in the field with ether anesthesia discovered by William Morton in 1846. At the same time, Nikolai Ivanovich first experienced anesthesia on himself.
During the Crimean War, Pirogov was the chief surgeon of Sevastopol besieged by the Anglo-French troops. There he first applied a plaster cast. An important merit of the doctor was the introduction of a completely new method of sorting the wounded – he proposed to distribute them according to their severity. Pirogov managed to organize the work of military transport teams with horses and comfortable carts, which made it possible to quickly deliver the wounded to the hospital. A talented doctor is justly considered the founder of military field surgery. He also attracted women to the battlefield as sisters of mercy. So, we can say that the nursing profession appeared thanks to Pirogov.
See also: During the Crimean War, soldiers brought a soldier with a torn off head to the dressing station to Nikolai Pirogov: “Let Mr. Pirogov sew it on.”
It was during this period that Pirogov put on his feet the young Dmitry Mendeleev, at that time the senior teacher of the Simferopol gymnasium. Nikolai Ivanovich denied the diagnosis of tuberculosis given to the future creator of the Mendeleev’s Table and quickly returned him to a full life. Dmitry Ivanovich forever retained a feeling of gratitude and admiration for Pirogov: “That was a doctor, – he often said. – He saw right through the person and immediately understood my nature.
Returning to St. Petersburg, Nikolai Ivanovich at a reception with Alexander II spoke about the problems in the troops, about the backwardness of the army. The emperor did not want to listen to this most valuable information, moreover, he appointed the doctor to the post of trustee of the Odessa educational district. Then Nikolai Ivanovich was transferred to the trustee of the Kiev educational district. Professor Nikolai Bunge wrote: “With the advent of Pirogov, as if by a wave of a magic wand, corporal punishment, which until recently had been used on too wide scales, was completely destroyed. The teachers remembered that they were not company commanders, but teachers ”.
See also: “Pirogov operated literally under bullets”
Nikolai Pirogov was married twice. His first wife was Ekaterina Berezina. Together they lived for only four years. The wife died giving birth to her second son. For Nikolai Ivanovich, this was a terrible blow. He did not marry for a long time, but one day he met the 22-year-old Baroness Alexandra Bistre, who admired the scientist’s articles and was very interested in science. Pirogov found a close-minded woman and proposed to her. After the marriage, the couple began to operate on the patients together – the baroness assisted.
On the eve of the Polish uprising of 1863, student secret societies became more active. Governor-General Illarion Vasilchikov suggested that Pirogov organize supervision by university forces “over the behavior and direction of thoughts” of students. The scientist flatly refused. Vasilchikov sent a report to St. Petersburg, in which he insisted that Pirogov’s continued stay as trustee would have disastrous consequences for the entire region. Alexander II on March 13, 1861 dismissed Pirogov. Assuming such an ending to his pedagogical career, the great surgeon bought an estate in the village of Vishnya near Vinnitsa in advance.
After settling in Vishna, he traveled from there only abroad, and also at the invitation of St. Petersburg University to give lectures. By this time, Pirogov was already a member of several foreign academies. Twice he left the estate, going to the front. The first time was in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, at the request of the International Red Cross. And the second time – in 1877-1878, when the Russian-Turkish war was going on.
See also: At the time of the death of Nikolai Pirogov, a lunar eclipse began
In October 1881, Nikolai Ivanovich made himself a disappointing diagnosis – a cancerous mouth ulcer, and on December 5, the great surgeon died. In the village of Pirogovo, within the boundaries of Vinnitsa, there is a museum-estate of Nikolai Pirogov, a kilometer from which there is a church-tomb, where the embalmed body of an outstanding surgeon rests.