Paarma chases everything big, dark and moving. Its visit leaves behind a red, swollen and severely itchy wound.
June towards the end Jaakko Pohjoismäki pararma sat on her leg. Around the time of Midsummer, the bursting of pairs is often at its most abundant in Finland, so there was nothing special about the visitor per se.
“However, I immediately noticed that there shouldn’t even be a paring that looks like that,” Pohjoismäki says.
Pohjoismäki, who works as a researcher at the University of Eastern Finland, found a shelter in Hanko, the area around Tvärminne’s biological station.
His colleagues are from the Turku Zoological Museum and the Natural History Museum recognized creature species named Hybomitra expollicata.
This parrot species has not been found in Finland before. Based on the appearance, the researchers suggested that its Finnish name be stripe parma.
The species, which grows to about two centimeters in length, belongs to the horse marshes, which are found in 17 different species in Finland. The hallmarks of the stripe pair are a light overall color, black horns, a longitudinal stripe on the hind body and a tapered stern.
However, for those unfamiliar with insects, it can be difficult to distinguish a new species from other horse mates.
“I have received a lot of contacts recently, according to which the line parma has been visible in the backyards of Finns for years. However, it is unlikely that such a large and spectacular species would have gone unnoticed by experts. ”
Stripe line was very modest in his way of life, as it is dependent on brackish water wetlands and bogs. So inland it won’t work.
Striped mare occurs in Europe, especially on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, from Croatia to Skåne in Sweden.
According to Pohjoismäki, the species may have hurt north along the coast in the past, but its larvae have not survived the winter frosts.
As the climate warms, the parma has now survived for the first time in Hanko, where it has developed its own position.
“During one day, several specimens of the species appeared in the vicinity of Tvärminne station.”
Paarma was already spinning in the time of the dinosaurs
Barrows are insects belonging to flies that have appeared on Earth since the time of the dinosaurs, more than 150 million years ago.
They thrive best in humid areas, such as swamps. Adult stretchers are on the move, especially on warm and sunny summer days.
39 paarmal species have been identified in Finland. There are 213 paralytic species in Europe and more than 4400 worldwide.
The most common genera in Finland are soups (Hematopot), blind couples (Chrysops), horse mating (Hybomitra) and bovine herds (Tabanus).
The barracks are the smallest and quietest of the barracks. The smallest individuals only grow to about seven millimeters in length. The soup bar is recognizable by the gray-brown base color and the zigzag pattern of the eyes.
Blindfolds are a medium-sized group that individuals recognize especially by their long tactile horns and bright, metallic eyes. The hindquarters often have yellowish streaks, and the wings settle in a triangular shape at rest.
The horse and cattle herds are the largest of the species, about 2 to 5 centimeters long. Their dark meshes have transverse stripes and often also brown hair. The hindquarters of horseshoes may be colored orange, brown or gray, and the bovine paws may be unambiguously gray or brownish.
In Finland, the only endangered grazing species is the grazing ash herd (Atylotus rusticus), which lives in our country only in Häntälä, Somero.
The larvae of the grazing ash herd live in the clay messed up by cattle along the lush rivers. In the past, the species was found almost throughout the country, but changes in livestock farming have almost completely eradicated it.
For humans paarmas appear as teasing pieces flying in the summer heat, but they spend most of their lives as larvae in moist land or shallow waters.
Pastures are already larvae of predators that prey on invertebrates such as earthworms. Larvae play an important role in the food chain, as they eat a huge number of other insects during their lifetime, and at the same time they themselves feed on waders, among others.
Depending on the circumstances, the larval phase of the farrow lasts about 1-2 years. If the weather is favorable and there is enough food, the larva develops quickly. In northern Finland, the growing season is short, so the larvae develop more slowly there.
The caterpillar encapsulates in early spring and then hatches when it has received enough heat. The first larvae hatch as early as May and the rest throughout the summer. The busiest season is in the south around Midsummer and in the north in early July.
“This summer, there has been more movement than usual, as the exceptionally hot early summer caused a large part of the production to hatch at the same time,” says Pohjoismäki.
However, according to him, the good thing about a hot summer is that the stretchers that start their flight at the same time also wear out quickly. The adult mare lives for two to four weeks, so the midsummer burst in early summer will fade in southern Finland as early as mid-July.
“That means the bridge levels are allowed to be relatively at peace this year.”
When the adult parma hatches from its housing, as it faces only one task: to reproduce.
At the expense of the instruments, the male pawns congregate into a large flock, where they spin in place on a visible ground object and bonge the females passing the race. Dogs do not suck blood, they feed on a tree of flowers.
After mating, the female needs a protein-rich blood meal to lay eggs. Females prey on warm-blooded, larger-sized goats.
Paws that attack a person are most often small soup and blind pawns. Large herds mainly prey on cattle, horses and deer.
“Of course they too can suck people, but sometimes they just visit us and find that the catch is too small.”
Paarma detects its prey from a distance of up to tens or hundreds of meters based on heat radiation, sweat and carbon dioxide from exhalation. They also have a very precise sense of sight.
“This has often been noticed on a forest trip: when you get out of the car, there are no gossipers anywhere, but in a moment they will be flocked to the crowd by the visitors.
Puree or inject? When the parma settles on the skin and begins to absorb blood, the mark may look ugly. Paarma cuts the skin with knife-like protrusions in the mouth and then licks the blood with its suction tip. Thus, contrary to popular belief, parma does not bite the skin back out.
When fed, the mare secretes anticoagulants, which may cause the blood to flow as soon as the mare is removed. There is also anesthetic in the saliva of the parma, so after the incision, the actual sucking of blood does not feel like anything.
Depending on the species, barns have different predation strategies. Small barracks attack a person with lightning speed and silence. Hoofed animals that prey on horse marshes are barely able to defend themselves, so large herdsmen roar loudly around their prey.
Compared to mosquitoes, it is more difficult to avoid barrage attacks. Thanks to his good eyesight, the paarma responds quickly to swings and flies under the palm of his hand. Paarma is a tenacious predator who continues his attempts to land despite the blows.
The mosquito also attaches to the skin as it sucks blood, making it easy to squirt to death. Paarma, on the other hand, flies his way in a threatening situation, and later returns to the same hole to dine.
If the parma is not disturbed when eating, it is able to absorb even its own weight of blood. For a medium-sized parma, this means a blood dose of about 50 milligrams.
A blood-filled parma lands in a sheltered place to digest and then lays eggs on the leaf of a wetland plant. Indeed, many forest visitors may have come across dark egg mounds resting on top of a leaf.
Reproduction is such a strenuous endeavor that the life of an adult mating usually ends immediately after laying.
As the larvae hatch, they fall from the top of the leaf into the wetland or water. There, they look forward to a warm summer day to continue their bustling family again.
Here’s how to take care of your injection
A visit to the injection site often causes a large, swollen bang at the injection site with a bleeding pimple in the center.
After the injection, the skin swells and redness, and the injection site shrinks strongly.
Depending on the person, the injection may also cause allergic reactions such as hives and swelling of the entire limb. Even anaphylactic or sudden hypersensitivity reactions have occurred.
Parma reactions can be treated with cortisone cream, antihistamines and, if necessary, cortisone tablets. An adrenaline syringe should be used for the anaphylactic reaction.
In Finland, parrots are mainly harmless to humans. In some rare cases, they may spread rabies, anthrax and Lyme disease.
Source: Health Library
From the barracks when protecting, the most important thing is the right kind of clothing. Paarma prey on everything big, dark and moving, so light clothing helps keep paarma away.
“Animals prey to Paarma are often dark in overall color, so the darkness attracts them,” Pohjoismäki explains.
While opaque clothing can feel nasty in hot weather, it is the only way to avoid yawning stings altogether. When going to the forest, you should protect yourself with, for example, a long-sleeved shirt with a cotton fabric, long trousers and, if necessary, a net hat.
Paarma is able to pierce through thin t-shirts, so they don’t provide enough protection. Mosquito toxins from supermarkets may not be effective for barrows either, but stronger products from pharmacies may be useful, according to Pohjoismäki.
“Barrows are so much larger than mosquitoes that they require higher levels of pesticides to stay away.”
One or two published a year ago research according to him, it is also possible to protect yourself from the barracks with a slightly more special equipment, namely a black and white stripe pattern.
The aim of the study was to find out why zebras have streaks. The researchers found that barnacles and other blood-sucking flies were unable to land on the zebra’s skin because the stripe pattern confused their flight control. As the zebra approaches, the parma often flies past or collides with the animal.
Read more: The giant benefit of the zebra pattern was confirmed in the video as researchers dressed zebras and horses in fake costumes
Read more: With the zebra pattern, protection also works for humans – the researchers tested the theory with striped mannequins
“One can also try to protect oneself from blackouts with black and white stripes. For example, the referee’s shirt could fit the current theme. ”