Canadian reef fossils show signs of sea fungi. They were forced to withstand in ancient times conditions with very little oxygen available.
Ancient Hero sea fossils have been found in Canada. Their age is estimated at a wild 890 million years.
If this is the case, the early stages of early multicellular animals will be brought forward by as much as 350 million years. It is a wild leap backwards in the evolution of the beginning of multicellular life and its timing.
The fossils were discovered by a geologist examining the earth’s layers Elizabeth Turner From Laurentian University. It is located in Sudbury, Canada.
“It would seem that this study is subversive,” Turner says. He knows the discovery is controversial, but the fossils and their age can be proven.
Animals all are multicellular. They are made up of separate tissues, just like humans. Unlike plants, multicellular animals have little connection. They eat food to stay alive.
It was long thought that the oldest fossils of such multicellular animals were from the Cambrian period. This geological period began about 541 million years ago.
The Cambrian period preceded ediakarakaaja, and fossils of that time have also been identified as animals. The season began in the classification of world seasons 635 million years ago.
Even older multicellular fossils may have been found. The age of these Discovered Fungal Fossils is estimated to be 660 million years.
Turner discovered controversial fungal fossils while exploring northwestern Canada In the McKenzie mountain area Rock and mineral deposits in the Little Dal area, he says online service Science Alert.
The mountains are located on the border between the Northwest Territories of Canada and the Yukon Territory. The area studied was in ancient times a sea cove where reefs grew. Their age is dated to 890 million years.
These reefs were not born of corals, as is usually the case today. Such reefs developed around communities of cyanobacteria living in sea coves.
The rock formations are called stromatolite. The earliest stromatolites are believed to have originated about 2.7 billion years ago.
In what is now Canada, reefs were miles long in ancient times. They rose to a height of hundreds of meters from the seabed.
Of these inside the rocks, Turner found under a microscope crystalline and fibrous networks that branched out. The various branches of the network are thinner than human hair. The networks are signs of fungal remains, Turner argues.
The mushrooms had and have a reticulated structure. It is formed sponge called a protein. They form the skeleton of the fungus.
Turner argues that when ancient fungi died, their soft tissues decomposed into minerals, harder sponge did not.
Eventually, however, it disintegrated, but left its mark on the ancient rock as hollow cavities. Later, the cavities were filled with calcite, which is limestone.
Turner found just such nets. They branched out in the rock in much the same way as in the form of sea fungus today.
Paleontologists Joachim Reitner From Germany, the University of Göttingen follows Turner’s discoveries. He has studied fungal fossils.
“We don’t know of other organisms that would form these types of networks,” he says For the New Scientist.
“I find this convincing,” the biologist also says Amelia Penny From the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.
If sea mushrooms that is, as early as 890 million years ago, animals began to develop much earlier than previously thought.
At the same time, they had to tolerate conditions of low oxygen. The oxygen content of the Earth’s atmosphere did not rise to about 10-50 percent of what it is today until much later, about 800-540 million years ago, scientists say.
Reitner says online service in Science Newsthat many mushrooms do withstand low oxygen conditions.
The alleged sea mushrooms also had to withstand icy conditions for a long time, as the entire planet had a long cold season about 720 to 635 million years ago.
All researchers do not swallow Turner’s claims. Fossil minerals do not show needle-like structures typical of a fungal skeleton, says paleobiologist Jonathan Antcliffe From the University of Lausanne in Switzerland.
“The discovery does not fit in with scientists’ perceptions of ocean ecosystems prior to the Cambrian period,” he says in Science News.
Turner says no other organisms that lived 890 million years ago, such as cyanobacteria or algae, can produce the structures that are in his samples.
The fungi may have survived by tearing in places where there were oxygen-producing cyanobacteria nearby. They produced oxygen to the seawater at the time, he ponders In a news article in Nature magazine.
So of the said molecular clocks has supported claims that animals, and in particular, evolved long before the first multicellular fossils were discovered.
The molecular clock measures the rate of mutations in the body’s DNA and proteins. Until then, however, measuring time with molecular clocks has been considered unreliable.
After all, calibrating a molecular clock is still difficult, even though it was invented as early as the 1960s. Turner’s observations can now restore the clock’s measurements to their value, Penny says.
Now more similar fossils should be found in different places. They might confirm Turnesr’s discovery.
Mushrooms has generally been considered the first multicellular. A chest has also been suggested comb magnets. They resemble the more well-known jellyfish.
Because comb mannequins are soft throughout, there are few fossils from them. Therefore, their first times are difficult to schedule.
The findings were told scientific journal Nature.