Literature Dante is known as the Italian national poet, but he lived the last years of his life deported and sentenced to death: deportation was only lifted now

700 years have passed since the death of Dante, the creator of the divine play. The hometown of Florence sentenced the Italian literary father to death, and it was not until this year that his sentence was finally overturned.

Sparse in the country, a literary language developer and national writer has been charged with corruption, deported from his hometown and hometown, and sentenced to death as an enemy of the nation. However, this was the case in early 14th-century Italy, when the political leadership wanted to silence the 36-year-old poet, philosopher, politician and diplomat. Dante Alighierin torn by political conflicts in Florence in early 1302.

The court ordered Dante to live for life. If he returned to Florence, he would be burned at the stake. A second death sentence was handed down to him in May 1315 for refusing to plead guilty and pleading for mercy with a hat in his hand.

Dante is often depicted with a laurel wreath on his head symbolizing victory and glory. The author of the painting is unknown.

Wrestling with money worries, Dante could no longer return to Florence during his lifetime, but spent the last 19 years of his life as an internally displaced person in various Italian cities and, at times, abroad.

During his years of deportation, the poet invented the idea of ​​a unified Italian state, he says Guy P. Raffa in the book Dante’s Bones. How a Poet Invented Italy (2020). Dante saw far into the future.

Although Dante’s canonization as a national writer began as early as the late 14th century, and especially in the 15th century, the poet had to wait a pardon for an unusually long time. Dante ‘s verdict was not formally overturned in Florence until a new, symbolic hearing in the spring of 2021, the death sentence was overturned in 2008.

This fall, the national poet, A divine play exactly 700 years have passed since the author’s death, which is reflected in the year-long events in Italy where Dante is remembered and celebrated.

In this way, the death penalty has paradoxically changed into eternal life.

Danten at the time, Italy did not exist in the modern sense, but the peninsula had disintegrated into either allied or warring urban states. The national actors were the Kingdom of Naples, the Vatican and Frederick II’s after the loss of the position of the Holy German-Roman Empire.

As early as the end of the 13th century, two strong political factions had been fighting bloodily for control of the city-state of Florence. One of them – the Ghibellins – defended the secular power of the Holy German-Roman Emperor and the other – the Guelphs – again held the Pope’s side firmly. The Guelfs defeated the ghibellins at the Battle of Campaldino in 1289, but the faction drifted into internal contradictions at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries and split into two hostile camps.

The Black Guelphs supported the Pope’s political status and influence. The white guelps, on the other hand, wanted to limit the power of the pope, which in the eyes of the black guelph linked the group to ghibellins.

Dante Alighieri, a member of the city’s highest political council, belonged to the white guelps, who were ousted by the black guelphs in 1302. It led to the persecution, death sentences, and arrests of white guelps in Florence.

That year, 559 opponents of black guelphs were sentenced to death.

Danten activities were monitored. The suspicions of the black guelph were not dispelled by the fact that 18 leading ghibellins and white guelphs, including Dante, gathered in June 1302 to form a counterweight to the black guelphs, but without success, as Marco Santagata reminiscent of a biographical work Dante: Il Romanzo della sua Vita (2012).

Dante was a marked man. He had a far too sharp pen and in addition he considered the Pope Boniface VIII was essentially a bodily manifestation of sin. The Vatican was also on his side.

According to Santagata, the trial, organized by black guelps backed by the Vatican, began as some sort of political cleansing, but eventually ended in pure revenge.

In that sense, Dante became a political pawn. His achievements as a writer did not weigh much in the horizontal cup.

Autobiographical translated into Finnish Vita nuova (New life) had already appeared in 1294. What was revolutionary was that the book was written in Italian, in the Tuscan dialect, and not in Latin. It paved the way for vernacular literature and began to gnaw at Latin dominance. Dante wrote in a historical situation where there was no unified Italy or Italian uniting people living in different city-states.

A divine play As a refugee, Dante wrote in various parts of present-day Italy, which has certainly annoyed the Florentines in retrospect. Italy was not born in Florence!

Dante’s pilgrimage to Rome in the holy year of the Catholic Church in 1300 had been a kind of starting point. A divine play frame.

Remained a classic of world literature for 700 years Divine play progresses in a three-part hike from the flames of hell to the purgatory purgatory of purgatory and finally to a blinding paradise, heaven.

In the work, Dante left the final goodbyes to Latin and began to use the vernacular, which was evolving into Standard Italian, which later seamed the nation into a state of disintegration. It’s quite a trick from one man.

In the process Divine play is an impressive hybrid that brings together the Christian and pagan traditions and includes the then – unborn modern world. The motive for the narrative is sin and its reward.

Illustration by Gustavo Dore from 1863 of the first part of the Divine Play about Inferno.

An illustration by Gustavo Dore from 1863. In the first part of the divine play, Inferno, the sinners are burned in open graves.

The enormous significance of the work is indicated by the fact that even those who have not read it know many linguistic and intellectual condensations, which have become flying sentences over time. Whoever happens to this gets all hope thrown.

In Finland About the divine play several translations have been published. Eino Leinon the Finnish translation is from 1912−1914, Elinan Vaaran from 1963 and Aline Pippingin Swedish from 1924.

At a young age Dante had experienced the political, social and economic dichotomy of his hometown.

Dante’s political convictions are largely tied to his father, a poet known as a strict guelpo poet. Alighiero II di Bellincionewhose reputation was not the best. The family was neither noble nor very wealthy. According to biographer Marco Santagata, Dante was ashamed of his background and often forged it as needed. The poet strived for better circles. He was an opportunist.

The political situation in Florence was also complicated by the guilds of the various professions created by the economic boom, even though the special skill of the city was to make money with money. Dante was reluctant to reform because he was basically a conservative who wanted Florence to return to its roots. It would have meant sticking to feudalism.

The Ghibellins and then still unified Guelphs ruled Florence bloodily in turn until 1289. The changes of power were dramatic. They meant arrests of opponents and the burning of their houses.

At worst, more than 1,400 houses, shops and palaces were destroyed in a matter of days. Perhaps these flames blaze in Dante’s description of hell.

Florence thus endured almost fifty years on the brink of continuing destruction, even though at the same time it became one of the most important financial centers in Italy.

Although Florence betrayed her own son, Dante never really abandoned Florence. During his years as a refugee, he often tried in various ways to get his sentence overturned.

The main lines of what Dante did and his steps are known, but surprisingly few historical documents about them have survived. Because Divine play is the key to the poet’s life stages and can even be read as autofiction.

For example, it has been concluded from the book that Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri was probably born in Florence between 21 May and 20 May. June in 1265. His mother was Bella Abati, who committed suicide when the poet turned 14 years old.

At the age of nine, Dante fell in love with the supernatural Beatrice to Portinar. The feeling struck so hard that the boy was suspected of having epilepsy. It is Beatrice who leads Dante to paradise In a divine play.

However, many of the traits associated with Dante and the image created by the poet are based on a rather deceptive foundation. For example, he has been made much more virtuous than he probably was. Marco Santagata also recalls that hardly any painting of Dante is reminiscent of the subject. This is also true Giotton to the famous painting of Dante in the Bargello Chapel in Florence. The subject is probably not Dante, nor has the fresco necessarily been painted by Giotto in the light of current knowledge.

In a fresco by Dante Giotto (in the middle in a red robe) in Florence, Bargello.

A poet who recorded Dante’s life Giovanni Boccaccio there are no sources most reliable. Boccaccio had just turned eight years old when Dante died of malaria in Ravenna in the autumn of 1321.

After Dante’s death, the construction of a monument to the poet began slowly in Italy. Material that had no historical coverage was also suitable for that work.

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