In this week that begins, our Constitution will celebrate 105 years of having entered into force. Throughout our history as an independent nation, the constitutions of 1824, 1857 and 1917 are usually mentioned. However, there are those who count seven* for their contributions:
1814. Constitution of Apatzingán. Work of José María Morelos y Pavón. It did not enter into force.
1824. Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States. Independent Mexico. Establishes the form of republican, representative and federal government, the division of powers. the indirect presidential election. It does not list the rights of man. Valid until 1836.
1836. Centralist Constitution of 1836, known as the Seven Constitutional Laws. Sets the form of Central Democratic Republican. The states are named after departments. Creation of a Supreme Conservative Power for political purposes.
1843. Bases of the political organization of the Mexican Republic. Named for Antonio López de Santa Anna. It retains the same characteristics except for the Supreme Conservative Power.
1846. The Constitution of 1824 is restored, which remains until 1857. In the first 33 years of independent Mexico there were 4 constitutions and 25 presidents.
1857. Establishes the supremacy of the Constitution. It definitively implements respect for individual rights, establishing the amparo trial as a guarantee thereof.
1917. In social matters, it takes a revolutionary step, since it widely protects the working class, both agrarian and working class. It transforms the concepts of private property, freedom of contract. It protects public wealth against the hoarding of capitalism. Democratic education available to the popular masses. It puts the collective interest before the individual.
The promulgation of the Constitution of 1917 marked the end of the Mexican Revolution. During his seven years of struggle there were 10 different presidents.
105 years after the promulgation of the Constitution, there have been 21 presidents. The stability of the presidential periods has not prevented compliance with the Constitution from being one of the weakest in comparison. In the previous editorial of Paralelo 0°, in a graph of 33 countries**, Mexico is the country with the highest impunity*** and the last place in educational level (possibly the variable that has the most impact is impunity).
When comparing the states of the Republic using the same graph, the same pattern can be seen: the lower the educational level, the greater the impunity. The fight against impunity requires strategies based on its severity in each state. However, all the strategies designed must abide by one of the most revolutionary postulates in social matters of our Constitution: democratic education for the popular masses.
Dear reader, avoid that, in this crazy February, the commitments with Candelaria (2) and the lover (14) end your patriotism of celebrating the Constitution (5), the Air Force (10), the Army (19) and our flag (24).
Read more: Back to the new normal
* Collection of the Virtual Legal Library of the Institute of Legal Research of the UNAM.
** The graph includes OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries that have the IGI plus three invited countries.
*** According to the Global Impunity Index (IGI), which takes as its starting point the definition of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in the Report by Diane Orentlicher, in this sense, impunity supposes “the inexistence, in fact or of law, criminal liability on the part of the perpetrators of violations, as well as civil, administrative or disciplinary liability, because they escape any investigation with a view to their indictment, arrest, prosecution and, if found guilty, sentence to death. appropriate penalties, including compensation for the damage caused to its victims.”
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