The history in many countries is full of doubtful aspects. Although there is discussion as to certain passages of the call Conquest and even later, in the Independent Mexico there are also aspects to discuss. The information provided by archeology and historical sources, which sometimes contradict each other, must be studied in depth, but it is what will clear the way to arrive at something firmer.
What is not valid is that things are invented without any basis because in the nineteenth century characters are enhanced and others are attacked.
It is not true that Cortés burned the ships. He ran aground, packed them, and then used that tool to make brigs in Tlaxcala and Texcoco. It is also very helpful to hear the term malinchismo, which comes from Malinche, who has been treated as a traitor like the Tlaxcalans.
Malinche did not betray the indigenous
It was not so. Marina was an intelligent and prepared woman, she spoke several languages: Mayan, Nahuatl, perhaps Totonac. She was among the twenty women who were gifted to Cortes after the Battle of Centla. What he did was defend his people, like the Tlaxcalans, who were under threat from the Mexican hosts.
The Mexica empire imposed a very severe tribute on other indigenous peoples: loads of corn and beans, snails, jaguar skins. There was a lot of resentment against the Mexica empire and that resentment finds a way out when Cortés arrives, who promises them that they will no longer pay tribute. On the other hand, there is the idea that when the Spaniards arrived in Veracruz they believed that they were gods. In case it had been, they soon stopped believing it.
Moctecuhzoma uses two strategies to drive away the Spanish. While Cortés was in Veracruz, he sent magicians to get away, but also gifts: silver, gold, feathers. That is repeated as Cortés progresses. Moctecuhzoma sends several embassies to Tlaxcala, accompanied by gifts, but the condition is that they do not continue advancing towards Tenochtitlan.
The Spaniards arrive in Cholula, the massacre occurs, and Moctecuhzoma, seeing that he cannot dissuade the Spaniards, changes the strategy and tries to do it by military means. It does not work for him, because the Spanish are warned by Malinche and Gerónimo de Aguilar about the dangers that Moctecuhzoma puts on them.
Moctezuma had a bad time
According to the documentation, Moctecuhzoma was a man who was very concerned about his empire. Knowing that strange people are arriving on the shores, he uses two strategies to ward off that danger. On the one hand, we are depicted as a grieving person and that also permeates his town. Years ago there were forecasts that predicted a misfortune for the empire. His situation as a ruler was not easy.
However, he tries to prepare warriors to attack the Spanish. He does not succeed because Cortés, thanks to the information he receives, finds out what his enemy is preparing and evades him. I believe that Moctecuhzoma is a man with a very strong burden, who sees how those who were previously subject to him rebel. All that must be taken into consideration. At one point, Cortés takes him prisoner in the Palace of Axayácatl, where the Spaniards live, and, finally, the same Mexica people dismiss him and names his brother Cuitláhuac, lord of Iztapalapa, as Tlatoani.
I think he is a person who must have had a pretty bad time. It is as Alfonso Reyes says in his Vision of Anáhuac: “Moctecuhzoma the suffering one.” There couldn’t be a better term.