The diabetes T 2, caused by insulin resistance and a reduction in the ability of cells to absorb sugar, is characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels. Its long-term complications include heart disease, stroke, retinal damage which can cause blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which can lead to amputations. However, new research is working on a new therapy that steadily normalizes blood sugar.
The study, led by Professor Shulamit Levenberg, Ph.D. researcher Rita Beckerman of the Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Laboratory at Technion’s Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, presents a novel therapeutic approach that uses an autologous graft of muscle cells designed to absorb sugar at faster rates. Mice treated in this way showed normal blood sugar levels for months after a single procedure.
The results of the Research have been published in the prestigious scientific journal Science Advances.
New therapeutic approach to stabilize glucose in T 2 diabetes: this is what the research says
Muscle cells are a major target of insulin and are supposed to absorb sugar from the blood. In their study, Prof. Levenberg’s group isolated muscle cells from mice and engineered these cells to present multiple insulin-activated sugar transporters (GLUT4). These cells were then cultured to form engineered muscle tissue and finally transported into the abdomen of diabetic mice.
The engineered cells not only proceeded to properly absorb sugar, improving blood sugar levels, but also induced better absorption into the other muscle cells of the mice, via signals sent between them.. After this treatment, the healing in the guinea pigs remained stable for four months, the entire time they were under observation.
Their blood sugar levels remained lower and they had reduced levels of fatty liver normally seen in t 2 diabetes.
“By taking the cells from the patient (diagnosed with T 2 diabetes) and treating them, we eliminate the risk of rejection“, Explained prof. Levenberg. These cells can easily integrate back into being part of the body and respond to the body’s signaling activity.
Currently about 34 million Americans, just over 1 in 10, suffer from diabetes, 90% of them from diabetes t 2. An effective treatment, and one that is a one-time treatment rather than a daily medication, could significantly improve both. the quality of life that the life expectancy of those with diabetes. The same method could also be used to treat various enzyme deficiency disorders.
Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycemia, or increased blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to severe damage to many systems in the body, particularly nerves and blood vessels.
In 2014, 8.5% of adults aged 18 and over had diabetes. In 2019, diabetes was the direct cause of 1.5 million deaths. To present a more accurate picture of the causes of death due to diabetes, however, deaths due to above-optimal blood glucose due to cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and tuberculosis should be added. In 2012 (the year of the latest available data), there were another 2.2 million deaths from high blood sugar.
Between 2000 and 2016 there was a 5% increase in premature mortality from diabetes. In high-income countries, the premature mortality rate from diabetes decreased from 2000 to 2010, but then increased in 2010-2016. In low- and middle-income countries, the premature mortality rate from diabetes increased in both periods.
Conversely, the probability of dying from one of the four major noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease or diabetes) between the ages of 30 and 70 decreased by 18% globally between 2000 and 2016.
Diabetes t 2 (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Most people with diabetes have diabetes t 2. This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes, but are often less pronounced. As a result, the disease can be diagnosed several years after onset, after complications have already arisen. Until recently, this type of diabetes was only present in adults, but now it occurs more and more frequently in children as well.
Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Adults with diabetes have a two to three times higher risk of contracting heart attacks and strokes Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy (nerve damage) in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers, infections, and the possible need for limb amputation.
Also there diabetic retinopathy it is a major cause of blindness and occurs due to long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels of the retina. Diabetes is the cause of 2.6% of global blindness and is a leading cause of kidney failure.
Several studies have shown that simple lifestyle measures are effective in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes t 2. To help prevent diabetes t 2 and its complications, people should:
- Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight;
- Being physically active: do at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity activity most days. More activity is needed for weight control;
- Follow a healthy diet, avoiding sugars and saturated fats;
- Avoid tobacco consumption: Smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
WHO aims to stimulate and support the adoption of effective measures for the surveillance, prevention and control of diabetes and its complications, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To this end, WHO:
- Provides scientific guidelines for the prevention of major noncommunicable diseases including diabetes;
- Develop norms and standards for diabetes diagnosis and treatment;
- Raise awareness of the global diabetes epidemic on the occasion of World Diabetes Day (November 14);
- It constantly monitors the increase in diabetes cases and its risk factors.
The “Global Diabetes Report“ WHO provides an overview of the diabetes burden, available interventions to prevent and manage diabetes, and recommendations for governments, individuals, civil society and the private sector.
There “Comprehensive strategy on diet, physical activity and health“ complements WHO’s work on diabetes by focusing on population-wide approaches to promote a healthy diet and regular physical activity, thereby reducing the growing global problem of overweight and obesity.
The WHO module on the diagnosis and management of diabetes t 2 brings together guidelines on the diagnosis, classification and management of diabetes t 2 in one document. The module will be useful for policy makers planning the delivery of diabetes care services, national program managers responsible for training, planning and monitoring service delivery, facility managers and primary care staff involved in clinical care and diabetes monitoring and outcomes processes.
As for Italy, the Observatory of General Practitioners (MMG) with regard to diabetes t 2 established that, out of a sample of almost 81,000 patients, the prevalence of diabetes t 2 The prevalence of DM2 is slightly increasing from 2012 (7.5%) to 2017 (8.0%) , with increasingly higher values in men than in women (8.8% vs 7.2% in 2017). The highest prevalence is recorded in the 80-84 age group: almost one in 4 individuals (23.4%) in this age group has diabetes. The Regions with a prevalence higher than the national figure are: Calabria (10%), Sicily (9.4%), Puglia and Abruzzo / Molise (equal 8.8%), Lazio (8.7%), Campania (8 , 5%) and Basilicata (8.6%).
Unfortunately, diabetes is often associated with a series of complications with an important impact on the health system, so much so that the management of the individual diagnosed with diabetes absorbs about the11% of health expenditure.
The data collected by General Practitioners indicate that an assisted patient costs an average of € 1,263 in a year with significant regional differences. In fact, € 1,515 is spent in Campania, € 1,409 in Umbria, € 1,398 in Puglia, € 1,304 in Lazio, € 1,299 in Abruzzo / Molise, € 1,299 in Veneto and € 1,269 in Sardinia.
In the adult population (18 years of age and over) the prevalence of diabetes is 6.7% while among the obese adults the share of people with diabetes reaches 14.6% and is up by over 4 percentage points compared to 2001.
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