Communicable diseases The wings of a mosquito that spreads many diseases carry farther and farther – spreading almost all diseases that infect humans

Climate change is accelerating the northward spread of mosquitoes that are spreading the most serious diseases. Finland is still too far away.

In the morning On June 18, 2019, the Cuban coast did scientifically well interesting discovery.

The first from the western hemisphere ever met Aedes vittatus mosquito flew its insect, which had been tuned into the terrain of the Guantánamo military base known for its terrorist prison camp by U.S. military scientists.

There was no cause for celebration. Aedes vittatus spread almost all diseases to humans from mosquito bites except malaria.

Dangerous The mosquito is native to the Indian subcontinent. Its appearance in the Americas tells how globalization produces surprising threats.

America has been under attack by new viruses since Europeans arrived there in the 15th century. Malaria and yellow fever spread by mosquitoes were part of the disease burden that killed much of the continent’s indigenous population.

Modern mosquitoes do not swing aboard a sailing ship slowly across the seas. They can move from one side of the globe to the other in less than a day.

Guantánamo is a bustling base for US ships and planes from all over. The first Aedes vittatus mosquitoes have probably come with them as eggs.

Aedes vittatus is a tenacious passenger. Its eggs are very drought resistant. If they get into a warm and humid enough climate and there in the water, they will hatch into larvae that will soon rise like mosquitoes on their wings.

There is living space in the Americas. If the mosquito is not eradicated, it is a matter of time before it spreads first to other islands in the Caribbean, then to Central and South America, and to the east coast of North America.

“Mosquitoes kill more people than any other animal.”

Aedes vittatus is by no means the only mosquito that poses new threats to humans. Scientists predict that in the future we will have to put up with more and more nasty surprises of sprouts.

Mankind has lived at the mercy of mosquitoes throughout its existence. They have been in the wild for over 200 million years.

The word mosquito describes a mosquito, Mosquito, is a Spanish – speaking fly, i.e. moscan diminutive form, i.e., a derogatory small fly.

There is no reason to belittle. The mosquito is man’s most dangerous enemy. Sharks kill ten a year and lions a hundred people, but there are 725,000 mosquito victims, exacerbated by Microsoft founder Bill Gates.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, led by her, funds the prevention of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.

“Mosquitoes kill more people than any other animal and are a serious threat to half the world’s population,” Gates sums up in his foundation’s blog.

In addition, mosquito-borne diseases get sick every year 700 million people – almost every tenth inhabitant of the world.

That’s why the U.S. military also chases mosquitoes: they are a threat to all military forces in the tropics. In the Vietnam War, Americans died more from mosquito-borne diseases than from fighting.

World of just over 3,500 known mosquito species, just under a hundred can seriously infect humans. None of Finland’s 42 mosquito species belong to them.

The most common dangerous diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are malaria, dengue heat, yellow fever, West Nile virus and Zika. With the exception of parasitic malaria, they are viral diseases.

The deadliest of them is Anopheles-mosquito-borne malaria, which kills about 600,000 people worldwide. Dengue and yellow fever each claim 25,000 to 30,000 victims a year.

The mosquito does not naturally carry viruses or parasites. It gets them into its body by sucking blood from the people carrying them. The next time it injects, they move from mosquito saliva to a new human victim.

Malarian and the yellow fever is believed to have arrived in America just like this. European newcomers had parasites or viruses in their veins. The mosquitoes that stabbed them sucked them in, spread them with new stings to the locals and ensured the spread of diseases by laying.

Only a female mosquito stings people. After the sting, it lays hundreds of eggs in less than a couple of days. If a mosquito has absorbed pathogens from human blood, they will be transferred to all eggs.

Asian tiger mosquitoes, known as diligent vectors, arrived in Europe in a load of tires used as eggs.

Mosquitoes their spread in their regions of origin has been limited by the fact that their air travel is about a hundred meters of spikes. However, tropical hurricanes can sometimes fly them hundreds of miles.

However, the strong growth in international trade and air travel is creating a number that go much further means of travel.

The first known as hard-working vectors Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, i.e. Asian tiger mosquitoes, arrived in Europe as eggs in a cargo of used tires unloaded in Albania.

Mosquitoes also travel freely with ornamental plants brought from commercial gardens abroad. Aedes albopictus appeared with reed trawl trees imported to the Netherlands from Asia.

Malaria, on the other hand, has infected people at airports who have never visited a malaria area. A winged smuggler crashed into the plane in the country of departure has flown a sheltered inner corridor from the entry gate to the terminal and stabbed his victim.

Previously the mosquito’s journey to new conditions usually remained an exotic one-time visit, but global warming has changed the situation. As winters shorten, mosquitoes tend to move further north. And as summers get longer, mosquitoes have more time to lay eggs during them.

Half of the world’s population will live by 2050 in areas at high risk of mosquito-borne diseases, a new peer-reviewed journal published by the scientific journal Nature Microbiology research warn.

Mosquito-borne dangerous diseases are the fastest-growing area of ​​dengue, estimates World Health Organization.

About half of the world’s population already lives in areas where dengue infection can occur. One hundred million people a year in 125 states on all continents – 30 times more than 50 years ago.

From the world of mosquitoes there are two particularly diligent and dangerous explorers. Originally from Southeast Asia Aedes albopictus and left Africa Aedes aegypti have spread to all continents.

They each spread about twenty viral diseases.m The gloomy estimate is that already by 2030 they are commonplace in large areas of Europe.

The most stinging of mosquitoes Aedes albopictus probably the fastest newcomer heading north.

It thrives in temperatures between 20 and 25 degrees, survives 8 to 9 degrees and its eggs can withstand up to five degrees below zero.

The tiger mosquito is already a serious nuisance in many Mediterranean countries, especially Italy. Aedes aegypti does not cope with the same cold conditions, which limits its progress so far southernmost Europe and the Black Sea coast.

Today the use of DDT, a predominantly banned insecticide, significantly reduced mosquitoes and the diseases they spread in the mid-20th century. Solutions are now being sought in biotechnology.

The method developed by the Australian World Mosquito Program can be called the vaccination of mosquitoes against diseases.

It works as a “vaccine” Wolbachia bacteria, which carries more than 60 percent of the world’s insects in its body. It does not cause problems for people.

The researchers found that when the bacterium is implanted Aedes aegyptiin, it begins to compete for living space with viruses. The reproduction of viruses is crucial and they are less or not transmitted at all from mosquitoes to humans.

Mosquito-borne mosquitoes that have been transmitted Wolbachiabacterium, is already released into the wild in several target areas. Preliminary results show that the number of dengue cases in them has dropped by as much as 80 percent.

Male Aedes Aegypts have been implanted with a gene that limits the development of their wings.

Oxfordin University researchers, on the other hand, have modified Aedes Aegypt’s genetic genome by inserting a gene into the mosquitoes that stops the development of their offspring.

When these mosquitoes were released into the wild in Brazil in two experiments by millions, the number of mosquitoes in the areas collapsed soon more than 90 percent.

For males Aedes to the Aegypte there is also an implanted gene that limits the development of their wings. After mating, the gene was transferred to eggs laid by the female, from which flightless mosquitoes hatched.

These experiments are already close to mosquito eradication from nature. However, that is not the solution – is it?

Evolutionary biologist at Imperial College London Olivia Judson spoke a few years ago about the eradication of the thirty most disease-spreading mosquito species In The New York Times.

It would save a million lives a year but reduce the diversity of the mosquito family by only one percent, he argued.

Most biologists consider mosquito killing the disadvantages would outweigh the benefits.

Mosquitoes are the pollinators of many tropical crops. Their extinction would deprive several animal species of food and could accelerate population growth. It could also destroy large areas of nature that have remained uninhabited due to mosquito tease.

What about how has it happened Aedes fucking In Cuba?

U.S. Army medical forces immediately began disinfecting residential areas near the site and scientists added mosquito repellent.

In February 2020 new entrants were found yet already a mile away. In April, a year ago, they were found 260 miles from the Dominican Republic.

Maybe Aedes vittatus is already investigating conditions in Florida today.

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