Children ‘s science questions Why haven’t dinosaur fossils been found in Finland?

Children’s science questions also consider rubbing shoes, the history of hockey rules, and encountering a shark and a piranha flock. And what would happen if all people got used to it at the same time?

Eemil Klefbohm, 6

From Finland no fossils of dinosaurs have been found, as no soil layers have survived here since the heyday of the dinosaurs. That time began about 230 million years ago and ended about 66 million years ago.

In many parts of the world, and also in Europe, there are many layers of the period. Dinosaur fossils have been found in some of the strata that have survived under suitable conditions.

There have probably been similar strata in Finland at the time. The main reason why they no longer exist is the effect of ice ages.

In the last 2.6 million years or so, there have been several ice ages in the northern hemisphere, during which the thick continental glaciers that have accumulated in Finland and the surrounding areas have consumed the deposits of dinosaurs. The last time this happened was about 12,000 to 20,000 years ago.

Due to the consumption caused by glaciers, mostly hard bedrock has remained in Finland. It is hundreds of millions of years older than dinosaurs. The soil layers on top of the bedrock are mostly stratified only after the last ice age.

Fossils of dinosaurs closest to Finland have been found in southern Sweden, Norway and Denmark.

Juha Saarinen

paleontologist, academy researcher

university of Helsinki

Downhill skiing can cause skin thickening.

Why only one shoe rubs but not both?

Ida Vennelä, 9

Mostly marks or thickening of the skin due to abrasion are not due to casual footwear, ie shoes, sandals, slippers or boots. Tight-fitting skates, ski boots, and soccer buttons, on the other hand, often cause skin thickening.

However, thickening is usually due to the sitting positions initially adopted by the children. Many children between the ages of 1 and 5 spend long periods of time sitting and playing on the floor. The bones and joints begin to form according to the sitting position.

The effects of postures are very often seen in the positions of the hips and feet throughout the rest of the life. In many cases, the postures are not perfectly balanced. A typical trace due to children’s sitting posture is a thickening of the skin on the outside of the foot in front of the outer spinal bone.

The congenital divergence of the feet and lower limbs, in turn, often causes both abrasions and thickening of the skin. The difference in the size of the legs can eventually be as much as the number of shoes.

A small difference in the shape of the feet is also common: for example, the heights of the arches may be different. In addition, only a quarter of people have exactly the same length of lower limbs.

Sometimes there may also be some more severe structural defect in the feet. Usually, one comes up soon after the baby is born.

However, more common in the end than rubbing is that the shoes wear unevenly. It doesn’t usually hurt the child itself, parents often do.

Pentti Kallio

docent, surgeon, pediatric orthopedist

Hus

Only a small portion of the fart ingredients cause a bad odor.

What would happen if all the people in the world got used to it at the same time?

Vilma Teräslahti, 11

Every with nearly eight billion farts, about half a cup of coffee would be released into the air. However, the gases would dilute rapidly, especially in the open air.

Many of the ingredients in a fart are the same as in the air anyway: nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, oxygen, hydrogen, and a wide variety of other ingredients. The ingredients caused by the bad smell characteristic of fart are less than one hundredth of the volume of fart.

The most important of these is hydrogen sulfide, or dihydrogen sulfide. The same substance naturally pulsates in bogs and volcanoes, for example.

High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide are dangerous to humans. Although a typical fart has more than a thousand times more than it would in ordinary outdoor air, even a one-time fart would not exceed dangerous readings.

By the way, simultaneously tapping people would not most likely revolutionize the world. People near you would smell bad for a while – inside buildings a little longer than elsewhere.

Ilona Riipinen

Professor of Atmospheric Sciences

Stockholm University, Sweden

Sanni Vanhanen (second from right) scored the Finnish winning goal in the semi-finals of the Women’s World Hockey Championships against the Czech Republic last August.

How did the rules of hockey come about?

Emma Ritsilä, 7

Hockey the first rules were copied almost directly from the field hockey rules. This happened in the 1870s, nearly 150 years ago in Montreal, Canada.

The rules were being written by university students. Students and young teachers at that time also made rules for other sports.

The whole of modern sports was actually born in the late 19th century. That’s when teams of different sports were formed and rules were written. For example, the rules of football were also born in England in the 1870s.

Even before the rules of hockey were written, various games similar to hockey and hockey had been played on ice. It can be said with good reason that hockey was born when the ball was changed to a puck.

Once the rules were created, they began to change over the years. For example, the paint was initially larger than it is today. The team was allowed to have nine players on the field at the same time, then seven and finally six players. Once upon a time, there was also a three-minute cooler. Blue lines were not added to the field until nearly a hundred years ago, and the red line was introduced even later.

In recent years, changes in hockey rules have been smaller. The rules of the leagues of different countries and the International Hockey Federation differ slightly.

Matti Hintikka

information service coordinator

Sports Museum

The strength of piranhas is in force.

If a shark and a flock of piranhas met, who would survive the encounter?

Altti Makkonen, 7

Hain and encountering a piranha flock is extremely unlikely, but possible. Sharks live in the Seas and piranhas in fresh waters, especially in rivers. Mainly a bull shark could make an exception and swim in the rivers of the Amazon rainforest favored by piranhas.

If the encounter were to take place, the piranhas would not attack the shark unless it was dying or dead. A shark, on the other hand, could surprise a flock of piranhas and eat individual individuals. The rest of the swarm would surely escape the scene.

However, if a decent fighting situation arose, a flock of piranhas would probably win. The shark would not be able to defend itself against piranhas who could strike from very many different directions.

Bites applied to a suitable site would quite certainly damage the large blood vessels of the shark, some of which run relatively close to the surface of the skin. Sharks that get bites like that die quickly.

A fighting situation could arise if a shark lost in a river and already exhausted accidentally ended up in a place where a very hungry flock of piranhas would move.

Markus Dernjatin

curator

Sea Life Sea Life

Send the question, the full name and age of the questioner to hs.tiede@hs.fi. The column will be edited by Touko Kauppinen and Juha Merimaa.

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