National Statistics Authority chief Said Erdal Dinger came under fire after publishing data in early January that put the annual inflation rate at 36.1 percent, its highest level in 19 years.
The opposition said that this figure is an underestimate, noting that the actual increase in the cost of living is at least two times higher.
Erdogan did not explain why he decided to appoint Erhan Cetinkaya, a former vice president of the Turkish Banking Regulatory Authority, as the new head of the National Statistics Authority, in place of Dinger.
Inflation rose to more than 36 percent in one year in December in Turkey, a record since September 2002, due to the depreciation of the Turkish lira.
Erdogan finds himself in an uncomfortable position 18 months before the presidential elections, and continues to defend his options.
Recognizing the damage inflation has caused to the economy and its levels of popularity, Erdogan pledged in January to reduce inflation as quickly as possible.
On the other hand, Erdogan appointed former Deputy Prime Minister Bekir Bozdag as Minister of Justice, replacing veteran member of the ruling party Abdulhamit Gul.