The industry 4.0 or fourth industrial revolution brings together digital advances in the field of Robotics, Big Data, 3D Printing, Nanotechnology and the Internet of Things (IoT).
Applied to construction, this concept promises higher productivity, increased energy efficiency and reduction of time and costs for the works.
The improvements in quality and production efficiency imply an evolution in the construction processes and, in order to advance, they need a paradigm shift.
“Building is an act is wonderful but it is a unique process that always starts from scratch. It is full of errors because we are always doing it for the first time ”, summarizes Arch. Sergio Topor.
He suggests changing construction for manufacturing: “Manufacturing is a short, repetitive industrial process, with a high quality standard because there is product quality control.
it’s possible standardize without losing quality or peculiarity”, He expressed in one of the Active Construction conferences.
Silvia Velázquez, architect and technical director of INTI, anticipated several developments underway that involve the development of cementitious pastes for 3D printing Y welding robotization for housing structures.
“The sensorization of the work it is one of the main sources of data for both construction and maintenance that is carried out through IoT ”, he stated.
The massive interconnection of digital systems and devices produce large amounts of data that can be managed (Big data) for simulations of all kinds. One of the most direct examples would be the energy performance study of a building from a rendering.
The system is trained to generate quality data through artificial intelligence (ODD Industries).
The new production organization model what does the construction 4.0 It is oriented to a circular economy, it takes into account the entire life cycle of buildings and their environmental footprint.
For Topor, 3D printing is the best concept from sustainability: “Today we are already analyzing printing with land from the place plus aggregates,” he said.
Digital and customizable houses (Argentine start up CAUH)
3D printing, customization of the work
In this sense, Eng. Francisco Luperi recounted the advances in the development of pastes with conventional materials for wall printing.
As director of the 3D Printer Project, he is currently preparing a transportable printer for house building on site or the manufacture of parts in the factory and then assemble them on site.
“We work together with the material dosage and his logistics on site, the development of robotics, that is, the printer, and the certification of the construction system ”, he pointed out.
And he anticipated that the preliminary studies “are interesting because of the reduction of time, the simplification of logistics, the reduction of errors and waste”. In addition, 3D printing offers a range of architectural possibilities, textures and shapes.
3D Printing reduces the generation of waste.
For specialists, “the most important thing is to change the mental model that leads us to do things the same way.” Maybe the challenge is undertake custom production on demand.
“With the same machine you can customize projects, build different houses on the same site. The printer only accepts orders, it doesn’t matter. Three years ago 3D printing was a concept and now we see more and more strategies. It is inevitable that we will advance in this direction ”, Luperi closed.